Ancylostoma duodenale

This is a parasite found all around the world, in tropical and in temperate regions alike. In North America, Necator Americanus is common along with Ancylostoma, but both are known as Hookworm.  This parasite is equipped with 4 teeth to hook up with to the intestines and suck blood.

Infective larvae penetrate the human host through the skin.  The parasite can be found in Europe, North Africa, Sri Lanka, Central and Northern China, the Pacific Islands, and the southern USA.  Around half a billion people are infected with this parasite, the large majority being unaware of this.

Mature Ancylostoma duodenale are of a small size and cylindrical in shape.  There are males that are around 8 mm long and 0.4 mm in diameter, and females can be12.5 mm long and 0.6 mm in diameter.  The anterior of the worms of both sexes is slightly bended (hence the name) and with a large buccal capsule.  It is well-shaped and with strong cover and is equipped with 6 sharp teeth-like plates, 4 hook-like teeth on the ventral side and with 2 buttons (triangular plates) or sharp lancets on the surface of the dorsal side.  These capsules enable latching on to the intestinal wall of the host.

The digestive system of the species is tubular and quite simple.  It consists of a mouth, buccal capsule, muscular pharynx with a triradiate lumen with cuticular lining, oesophageal bulb, intestines, rectum and cloaca in the males, and anus in the females. Ancylostoma has five glands linked with the digestive system.  One of those is called oesophageal gland secreting a ferment preventing blood-clotting, so that the worm can suck blood from the host.  The worm in fact feeds on the intestinal mucous membrane and blood.  While feeding, the small teeth and sharp plates of the buccal capsule make tiny incisions in the intestinal mucous membrane through which the food and the body liquid are taken in through specific actions of the pharynx.

After feeding, the worm leaves a bleeding wound behind and moves elsewhere.  A mature worm may suck up to 1 ml of blood per day from the host, eventually causing severe anemia.

The copulation of Ancylostoma duodenale takes place in the intestines of the host.  The female lays eggs there, and they get excreted with the feces.  One couple can produce on average around 9,000 eggs every day.  Eggs are colorless and hyaline-covered.  Each egg laid contains an embryo in 4- or 8-cell phase.  These eggs are not yet infectious for humans.  In favorable conditions – moisture, oxygen, and warmth (around 20-30 degrees Celsius), the embryo develops into a rhabditiform larva.  It is around 250 micrometers long and would hatch in 48 hours.  The young larva has a mouth, buccal capsule, elongated pharynx, digestive oesophagus and intestines.  At this age it feeds on bacteria and other organic matter from the soil.  By the fifth day from hatching it develops into a thread-like larva, 500 to 600 micrometers long.  This is the infectious stage of the parasite.  At this stage the larva does not feed but remains alive for several weeks.

Once it lands a host, Ancylostoma duodenale penetrates the skin.  The anterior of the larva has sharp needle-like points with which it punctures the skin of the extremities and enters the host, usually through the hair follicles.

Upon reaching the tissues beneath the skin, larvae get into the lymphatic system and the vascular system; by way of the venous circulation they get through the right atrium, in the pulmonary capillaries, piercing the capillary walls in order to reach the alveolar spaces.

The migration continues to the bronchi, trachea, larynx, around the epiglottis to the back of the pharynx, and ingestion eventually follows.  Throughout the entire process until ingestion larvae feed and grow.  The migration takes around 10 days.

By the time larvae reach the small intestines they are in the fourth, last stage of their development and are ready to mature.  In around 3 to 4 weeks young larvae become sexually mature and can reproduce.  A mature Ancylostoma Duodenale can live from 3 to 4 years.

These are the most dangerous parasitic nematodes that can inflict most severe harm.  In addition the symptoms they cause can vary a lot, depending on the stage of development they are in.  In addition to sucking blood and body fluid of humans, they cut holes in the intestinal mucous membrane and leave open wounds behind. They also affect the hormonal system.  In children, among who infection rates are very high, the parasites can affect the normal psychological development.  Some toxins secreted by the glands around the head of the worm cause abdominal pain, fermentation of food, diarrhea, constipation, shortness of breath, tachycardia, eosinophilia.  Above all the immune system can get so severely compromised that it may not be able to react even to strong allergens.  Each larva goes through the lungs where it can cause bronchial pneumonitis or hemorrhage, let alone the harms it can inflict during its march through the heart.

Para-7 kills Ancylostoma Duodenale, regardless of the phase of development they are in.  The product is suitable for adults, children, babies, pregnant and lactating women.  Please observe the dosage instructions.

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